Epidemiology and risk factors associated with measles in Cambodia, 2019
Sopheap Yon1,2, Darapheak Chau2, Samnang Chham3, Heng Sopheab2
1- Technical officer, AET, Battambang Provincial Department
2- School of Public Health at the NIPH
3- Technical officer, EPI program WHO Cambodia office
Measles is a highly viral contagious disease spread via respiratory aerosol or droplets. It has been eliminated in Cambodia since 2015 but has reemerged in the past three years. This study aimed at identifying epidemiological characteristics and the associated factors related to reoccurring measles outbreaks after the elimination certification.
The total of 2200 samples from the National measles surveillance data in 2019 combined with data of measles vaccination and vitamin A coverage, MoH, and General Population Census data in 2019 including the household members size data, region of residence, international neighboring provinces and touristic zones were. Descriptive epidemiology and bivariate analysis were performed. Logistic regression analysis was conducted in backward elimination to adjust potential confounding factors by using the STATA version 14.2.
Of the 2200 samples, major age groups were less than 5 years old (50.6%). Overall, 676 measles cases were confirmed. Two genotypes were identified (B3 and D8) circulated from May to October. The risk factors associated with measles were rainy season with AOR = 1.49 (95% CI: 1.19-1.86), coastal zone, AOR = 1.94 (95% CI: 1.19-3.16), direct contact person, AOR = 2.43 (95% CI: 1.64-3.62) and oversea traveling, AOR = 1.46 (95% CI: 1.02- 2.08). The protective factors of measles were MR2 vaccination coverage, AOR = 0.64 (95% CI: 0.46-0.87) and individuals vaccinated one dose, AOR = 0.11 (95% CI: 0.06-0.21) and 2 doses, AOR = 0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.10) were less likely to be infected by measles respectively.
Imported genotypes measles were identified. Raining season, coastal zone, direct contact person, and oversea traveling were the keys risk factors associated with measles outbreak. In addition, vaccination was significantly protective against measles infection.
Keywords: Epidemiology, factors association, genotypes, measles, Cambodia